10/29/2009

Telemedicine: CMS definition and reimbursement guidelines

Telemedicine and Telehealth

Telemedicine

For purposes of Medicaid, telemedicine is the use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve a patient's health. Electronic communication means the use of interactive telecommunications equipment that includes, at a minimum, audio and video equipment permitting two-way, real time interactive communication between the patient, and the physician or practitioner at the distant site. Telemedicine is viewed as a cost-effective alternative to the more traditional face-to-face way of providing medical care (e.g., face-to-face consultations or examinations between provider and patient) that states may choose to cover. This definition is modeled on Medicare's definition of telehealth services located at 42 CFR 410.78. Note that the Federal Medicaid statute (Title XIX of the Social Security Act) does not recognize telemedicine as a distinct service.

Distant or Hub Site means the site at which the physician or other licensed practitioner delivering the service is located at the time the service is provided via telecommunications system.

Originating or Spoke site means the location of the Medicaid patient at the time the service being furnished via a telecommunications system occurs. Telepresenters may be needed to facilitate the delivery of this service.

Asynchronous or "Store and Forward" means transferring data from one site to another through the use of a camera or similar device that records (stores) an image that is sent (forwarded) via telecommunication to another site for consultation. Asynchronous or "store and forward" applications would not meet the above definition of telemedicine--see telehealth.

Reimbursement/Billing—Reimbursement for Medicaid covered services, including those with telemedicine applications, must satisfy federal requirements of efficiency, economy and quality of care. With this in mind, States are encouraged to use the flexibility inherent in federal law to create innovative payment methodologies for services that incorporate telemedicine technology. For example, States may reimburse the physician or other licensed practitioner at the distant site and reimburse a facility fee to the originating site. States can also reimburse any additional costs such as technical support, transmission charges, and equipment. These add-on costs can be incorporated into the fee-for-service rates or separately reimbursed as an administrative cost by the state. If they are separately billed and reimbursed, the costs must be linked to a covered Medicaid service. While telemedicine is not considered a distinct Medicaid service, any State wishing to cover/reimburse for telemedicine services should submit a State Plan Amendment to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for approval.

Medical Codes—States may select from a variety of HCPCS codes (T1014 and Q3014), CPT codes and modifiers (GT, U1-UD) in order to identify, track and reimburse for telemedicine services.

Telehealth (or Telemonitoring) is the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide access to health assessment, diagnosis, intervention, consultation, supervision and information across distance.

Telehealth includes such technologies as telephones, facsimile machines, electronic mail systems, and remote patient monitoring devices which are used to collect and transmit patient data for monitoring and interpretation. While they do not meet the Medicaid definition of telemedicine they are often considered under the broad umbrella of telehealth services. Even though such technologies are not considered "telemedicine," they may nevertheless be covered and reimbursed as part of a Medicaid coverable service under section 1905(a) of the Social Security Act such as laboratory service, x-ray service or physician services.

Other Considerations:

Medicaid guidelines require all providers to practice within the scope of their state practice act. Some States have enacted legislation which requires providers using telemedicine technology across state lines to have a valid state license in the state where the patient is located. Any such requirements or restrictions placed by the State are binding under current Medicaid rules. Medicare Conditions of Participation (COPs) applicable to settings such as long-term care facilities, and hospitals may also impact reimbursement for services provided via telemedicine technology. For instance, the Medicare COPs for long-term care facilities require physician visits at set intervals. Current regulations require that the physician must be physically present in the same room as the patient during the visit. This requirement must also be met for Medicaid to pay for services provided to Medicaid eligible patients while in a Medicare or Medicaid certified facility. Similarly, federal regulations require face-to-face visits for home health, and telemedicine cannot be used as a substitute for those visits. However, a telemedicine encounter may be used as a supplement to the required face-to-face visits

  via cms.hhs.gov

Anyone eager to make a business out of remote care and telemedicine technologies must carefully read, re-read, and ultimately memorize the one-page guidelines above if they hope to remain a sustainable investment in the current environment. In my estimation, the most valuable by-product of a Billion-dollar US Connected Health sector will be its utility as a stimulant of hyper-innovation. Without a business plan and patient care protocols/procedures that achieve 75-100% reimbursement rates from CMS, any telemedicine program is doomed to be a money-pit regardless of the altruistic motives of its proponents. The entrepreneur who will emerge best-of-breed in telemedicine will be he/she who finds the shortest path to demonstrating "Meaningful Use" in the form of real improvement in patient outcomes.

Posted via web from Connected Care Solutions

National Coalition for Health Integration (NCHI): Bringing order to the chaotic health information technology through grid computing

The National Coalition for Health Integration (NCHI) initiative is an ambitious attempt to establish a truly interoperable environment for linking independent health information technology projects around the US through an open framework. With an all-star team of business and scientific directors funded entirely through private donations made by its principal founder, billionaire pharmaceutical entrepreneur Patrick Soon-Shiong, M.D., NCHI seeks to establish "virtual organizations" which combine numerous disparate health organizations across all sub-specialties and functional purposes (i.e. billing, administration, health records, etc.) and without concern for traditional geographic constraints. It utilizes in an unprecedented fashion institutes of higher education and their leading academic innovators in bio-informatics and grid computing. Truly a revolutionary initiative which will undoubtedly emerge as a major foundational element of any long-term improvement in the delivery of quality care. (www.nchiconnect.org)

Posted via web from Connected Care Solutions

BreakThrough: Teletherapy startup gaining some mainstream popularity, but business model is very misleading

Overview

BreakThrough connects mental health professionals with clients through secure video, phone, and web.

We have a mental health epidemic

More than 57 million Americans – one in four adults – have a diagnosed mental illness. Tens of millions more struggle with stress and relationship issues. Institutions such as hospitals, prisons, schools, companies, health plans, and veterans centers are overcrowded with patients needing help, but growing costs and shrinking budgets are decimating quality of care.

Even though seventy to eighty percent of patients with mental illness improve with treatment, patients remain woefully underserved. Two–thirds of Americans with a mental illness do not receive treatment due to cost, stigma, inconvenience, and low access, particularly in rural areas. This is despite Americans spending $121 billion on mental health and substance abuse treatment.

The solution of telemedicine

Telepsychiatry and teletherapy – mental health services delivered through secure video, phone, and web – have emerged as effective, affordable, convenient, and safe methods of treating stress and mental illness. Telemedicine has several substantial benefits:

Effectiveness:

over fifteen years of research confirm that telemedicine is as effective as in–person treatment. This is particularly true in psychiatry and clinical psychology where much of the treatment is doctor–patient communication. Click here for a list of research studies on the effectiveness of telemedicine.

Convenience:

fifty percent of therapy clients drop out after a few sessions, but research shows teletherapy can boost retention to over ninety percent. Because clients can hold sessions anywhere with phone or internet access, they are much more likely to go and stay in treatment. BreakThrough supports sessions via video, phone, email, and live chat.

Affordability:

telemedicine sessions can cost ten to fifty percent less due to reduced overhead, travel time, and staffing needs. On BreakThrough, providers set rates that are almost always more affordable than in–office visits.

Access:

research shows the fit between clients and mental health providers is essential to positive outcomes. Most people will not travel to a provider beyond fifty miles, but telemedicine lets clients work with the best licensed provider regardless of location. BreakThrough clients can find providers on a wide variety of criteria, including price, reputation, location, gender, experience, credentials, and more.

Confidentiality:

eighty percent of therapy clients worry about the stigma of treatment. To protect clients, BreakThrough requires minimal information, enabling treatment with a level of discreteness and security not possible with in–person treatment.

Peer support:

the support of friends, family, and other patients is essential to long–term recovery. BreakThrough offers forums, group sessions, and seminars to enable peers to support each other no matter where they live.

Telemedicine is legal and expanding

Telepsychiatry and teletherapy are legal and regulated by state–specific guidelines. Government and licensing boards are also rapidly evolving legislation to expand telemedicine access.

To protect providers and meet the highest levels of regulatory compliance, we currently allow providers to see clients only in states where the provider is licensed. Providers can typically apply for licensure in multiple states, either directly through state licensing boards or third–party services that streamline the application process.

Telemedicine is reimburseable

Since 2004, Medicare and the AMA have issued CPT codes to identify and reimburse telepsychiatry and teletherapy services. A list of eligible services and codes include:

  • Individual psychotherapy: CPT 90804 – 90809
  • Consultations: CPT 99241 – 99255
  • Office or other outpatient visits: CPT 99201 – 99215
  • Pharmacologic management: CPT 90862
  • Psychiatric diagnostic interview examination:CPT 90801
  • Neurobehavioral status examination: CPT 96116

CPT code descriptions can be found on the American Medical Association's CPT directory. The modifier GT may be necessary to identify that services were delivered via telemedicine. For Medicare reimbursement, clients generally must receive treatment at an eligible originating site, such as a doctor's office, hospital, nursing facility, mental health clinic, or similar facility. Private payers often do not have the same locality restrictions. More details on reimbursement are available through the American Telemedicine Association.

The premise underlying the business model for BreakThrough may well be sound, particularly the evidence presented supporting the positive impact of teletherapy on psychiatric patient outcomes. However, the increase in quality of treatment via telemedicine is irrelevant without a method for sustaining the provision of treatment through reimbursement of attending psychiatrists.

The assertion that "Telemedicine is reimbursable" made in the final section above, while accurate technically, is misleading in that eligibility to be reimbursed and actually recouping fees for services provided are two entirely different issues. The CPT codes provided by the BreakThrough founders are a distraction from the real challenge of processing and collecting payment, which is overcoming the fact that CPT codes are very often (more often than not) ignored because of the GT modifier and the advanced standards of practice that must be met to be eligible under Medicare reimbursement policy.

Medicare mandates clearly that telemedicine services are only eligible for reimbursement when there is a two-way video transmission that allows doctor and patient to each see the other. Any health professional will tell you that private insurers will always follow Medicare's guidance when it comes to establishing standards of eligibility for reimbursement.

This is going to create a major obstacle for the well intentioned and otherwise exciting startup to achieve widespread adoption amongst mental health providers, as they are not likely to adopt therapeutic practices without demonstrable evidence that reimbursement above a significant percentage of total consults is achievable. I wish the BreakThrough team the best of luck!!

Posted via web from Connected Care Solutions

AHRQ Report: Consumers Need to be Empowered in Health IT Debate

A new study out the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) suggests that by excluding consumers from the broader implementation of health information technologies, the medical community is marginalizing themselves and prolonging the time it will take to reach high levels of consumer adoption. Just another reason to add to the list of flawed approaches/perspectives on information technology among health professionals, though quite possibly the one issue that if addressed effectively could make all of the other impediments to ubiquitous adoption of highly advanced IT systems evaporate in the face of overwhelming consumer demand.

Posted via web from Connected Care Solutions

Telemedicine allows for long-distance diagnoses

HSG

Link: Telemedicine allows for long-distance diagnoses - The Washington Times.

As mentioned in an earlier post, 4 years ago Telemedicine was in its infancy, perhaps used for monitoring status of patients with pacemakers... Now, according to this article in the Washington Times, Dr. Kenneth Bird, a Harvard professor affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital, innovated an approach to patient care using monitors and remote access to hospitals to examine, diagnose and treat his patients.

Also, according to the article, patients are wearing monitors that can be remotely tracked and physicians can be notified and/or paged when necessary. Telemedicine (a.k.a. Telehealth) is not a substitute for direct patient care, but rather, it is an augmentation to the existing delivery of care. That said, installation/implementation can be a huge expense (ranging between $2.5 and $3.5 million), so larger hospitals are more likely to implement remote monitoring.

The article continues with explanation of "concierge" medicine approaches, which are light years ahead of the status quo. The benefits to patients is purportedly rapid care from providers, from home or within a specialized, technology enabled facility.

It's an interesting thought, and another example of how technologies can be used to improve patient care if used appropriately. That said, there are likely significant privacy and security issues related to the "transaction" between patient and providers. For more information about HIPAA Requirements, The HIPAA Privacy Rule, The Security Rule, or The HITECH Act visit The Online HIPAA Survival Guide.

And, if you are interested in keeping current on the issues, sign up for the FREE HITECH/HIPAA Compliance Newsletter.

Courtesy of Healthcare & Technology Blog (By: Deborah Leyva): http://www.myhealthtechblog.com/2009/10/telemedicine-allows-for-long-distance-diagnoses.html

Telemedicine (Telehealth) is starting to get the attention it deserves, but innovation will not occur in a vacuum of unsustainable business models. Until self-sustainability for for telemedicine initiatives is achieved and replicated on a widespread basis it will not be as significant in the provision of care as it should be.

Posted via web from Connected Care Solutions

10/01/2009

Grid, Distributed and Cloud Computing Resources

Grid, Distributed and Cloud Computing Resources (GridResources.info) is a Subject Tracer™ Information Blog developed and created by the Virtual Private Library™. It is designed to bring together the latest resources and sources on an ongoing basis from the Internet for grid, distributed and cloud computing resources which are listed below. We always welcome suggestions of additional sites and resources to be added to this comprehensive listing and please submit by clicking here. This site has been developed and maintained by Marcus P. Zillman, M.S., A.M.H.A.; Internet expert, author, keynote speaker, and consultant. His latest white papers include Searching the Internet, Academic and Scholar Search Engines and Sources, and Knowledge Discovery Resources 2010. All of his Subject Tracer™ Information Blogs and his white papers are available from WhitePapers.us.
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GRID, DISTRIBUTED AND CLOUD COMPUTING RESOURCES
3TERA - Cloud Computing Platform
http://www.3tera.com/
Access Grid Project
http://www.AccessGrid.org/
Advanced Collaboration with the Access Grid
http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue42/daw/
Amazon Elastic Computer Cloud (Amazon EC2)
http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
Aneka: A Software Platform for .NET-based Cloud Computing
http://www.gridbus.org/reports/AnekaCloudPlatform2009.pdf
Apache Hadoop Core - Easily Write and Run Applications That Process Vast Amounts of Data
http://hadoop.apache.org/core/
Appistry-Cloud Computing Middleware
http://www.appistry.com/
AppNexus
http://www.appnexus.com/
Artificial Intelligence Systems Distributed Computing Project
http://www.intelligencerealm.com/aisystem/system.php
BioGRID
http://www.thebiogrid.org/
BOINC - Open-Source Software for Volunteer Computing and Grid Computing
http://boinc.berkeley.edu/
Boomi AtomSphere(SM)
http://www.boomi.com/
Building the Info Grid
http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue45/buildinginfogrid-rpt/
caBIG™ - cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid
https://cabig.nci.nih.gov/workspaces/Architecture/caGrid/
CenterGate Research Group LLC
http://www.centergate.com/
CISS - Canadian Internetworked Scientific Supercomputer
http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~ciss/
Clean Energy Distributed Project
http://cleanenergy.harvard.edu/go/
Climate Prediction
http://climateprediction.net/
CloudBerry Online Backup
http://www.cloudberrylab.com/default.aspx?page=cloudberry-backup
CloudBuddy - Your Virtual Desktop
http://www.mycloudbuddy.com/
Cloud Computing and Emerging IT Platforms: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering Computing as the 5th Utility
http://www.gridbus.org/reports/CloudITPlatforms2008.pdf
Cloud Computing and High-Performance Computing
http://search.techrepublic.com.com/search/cloud+computing+and+high-performance+computing.html
Cloud Computing Expo
http://cloudcomputingexpo.com/
Cloud Computing Journal
http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/
Cloud Computing Resource Center
http://www.deitel.com/ResourceCenters/Programming/CloudComputing/tabid/3057/Default.aspx
Cloud Computing Resource, News and Support
http://www.dabcc.com/section.aspx?sectionid=12
Cloud Computing - Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing
Cloudo - The Computer Evolved
http://www.cloudo.com/
CloudSim: A Novel Framework for Modeling and Simulation of Cloud Computing
Infrastructures and Services by Rodrigo N. Calheiros1, Rajiv Ranjan1, C├ęsar A. F. De Rose, and Rajkumar Buyya

http://www.gridbus.org/reports/CloudSim-ICPP2009.pdf
Cluster Computing: The Journal of Networks, Software Tools and Applications
http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=101766
Cluster Resources
http://www.clusterresources.com/
Community Grids Lab
http://www.communitygrids.iu.edu/
Condor Project - High Throughput Computing
http://www.cs.wisc.edu/condor/
Cosmogrid - Grid-enabled Computational Physics of Natural Phenomena
http://www.cosmogrid.ie/
D2OL - Drug Design and Optimization Lab - Discover Drug Candidates
http://www.d2ol.com/
DataMiningGrid Consortium
http://www.datamininggrid.org/
Deep Web Research
http://www.DeepWebResearch.info/
dhtmlxGrid - Ajax-enabled DHTML Grid with Rich Javascript API
http://www.dhtmlx.com/docs/products/dhtmlxGrid/
Digipede Technologies - Distributed Computing Solutions on Microsoft.NET Platform
http://www.digipede.net/
Distributed.net - Node Zero
http://www.distributed.net/
Distributed Computing Resources
http://www.jamesthornton.com/hotlist/distcomp.html
Distributed Generic Information Retrieval (DiGIR)
http://digir.sourceforge.net/
Distributed Search Engines
http://www.openp2p.com/pub/t/74
Distributed Systems - Google Code University
http://code.google.com/edu/parallel/index.html
Distributed Systems Laboratory at University of Chicago
http://dsl.cs.uchicago.edu/
Economy Grid (EcoGrid) Project
http://www.gridbus.org/~raj/ecogrid/
EGEE: Enabling Grids for E-science in Europe
http://egee-intranet.web.cern.ch/egee-intranet/gateway.html
Einstein@Home Distributed Computing Research Project
http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/
EuroGRID
http://www.eurogrid.org/
ExcelGrid
http://www.gridbus.org/excelgrid/
eyeOS - Cloud Computing Operating System - Web Desktop - Web OS - Web Office
http://www.eyeos.org/
FightAIDS@Home Distributed Computing Research Project
http://fightaidsathome.scripps.edu/
Flexiscale
http://www.flexiscale.com/
Folding@Home Distributed Computing
http://folding.stanford.edu/
Force.com - Cloud Computing for the Enterprise
http://www.Force.com/
Ganglia - Scalable Distributed Monitoring System for Clusters, Grids and Clouds
http://ganglia.info/
Genome@home
http://www.stanford.edu/group/pandegroup/genome/
GGF Document Process - Final Documents (Global Grid Forum)
http://www.ggf.org/documents/final.htm
GIS Working Group - Global Grid Forum Information Services Area Group Charter
http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/gridforum/gis/
Gladinet Cloud - Delivering Cloud Services to Your Desktop and Operating System
http://www.gladinet.com/
GoGrid
http://www.gogrid.com/
Google™ App Engine - Run Your Web Apps On Google's Infrastructure
http://code.google.com/appengine/
Google™ Apps - Software-As-a-Service for Business Email, Information Sharing and Security
http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/index.html
Google™ Directory - Cloud Computing
http://snipurl.com/ddrdr
Google™ Directory - Distributed Computing
http://snipurl.com/8jv3
Google™ Directory - Parallel Computing
http://snipurl.com/8jv6
GRACE - GRid seArch and Categorization Engine
http://www.ub.uni-stuttgart.de/grace/
GRID.ORG ™ - Grid Computing Projects
http://www.grid.org/
Grid Application and Deployment Projects
http://www-fp.mcs.anl.gov/~foster/grid-projects/
Grid Application Development Sofware Project (GrADS)
http://hipersoft.cs.rice.edu/grads/
GridBlocks
http://gridblocks.hip.fi/
GridCafe - The Place for Everybody To Learn About Grid Computing
http://www.gridcafe.org/
Grid Computing - IEEE Distributed Systems Online
http://dsonline.computer.org/gc/
Grid Computing Info Centre (GRID Infoware)
http://www.gridcomputing.com/
Grid Computing Planet
http://gridcomputingplanet.com/
Grid Forum
http://www.gridforum.org/
GridIron™ XLR8™
http://www.gridironsoftware.com/
GridLab: A Grid Application Toolkit and Testbed
http://www.gridlab.org/
Grid Market Directory (GMD)
http://www.gridbus.org/gmd/
Grid Markets Project
http://www.lesc.ic.ac.uk/markets/
GridMiner - Intelligent Grid Solutions
http://www.gridminer.org/
Grid Performance and Information Services (GGF)
http://www-didc.lbl.gov/GridPerf/
GridRepublic - Volunteer Computing
http://www.gridrepublic.org/
GridServer - Grid Computing for Business Critical Applications
http://www.datasynapse.com/
GridSim: A Grid Simulation Toolkit for Resource Modelling and Application Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Computing
http://www.gridbus.org/gridsim/
GridSim Toolkit -- Resource Modeling and Scheduling Simultation
http://www.buyya.com/gridsim/
GRID'XY: IEEE/ACM Grid Computing International Workshop
http://www.gridcomputing.org/
GriPhyN - Grid Physics Network
http://www.griphyn.org/
Grub's Distributed Web Crawling Project
http://www.grub.org/
IBM Cloud Computing
http://www.ibm.com/ibm/cloud/
IEEE Distributed Systems Online
http://dsonline.computer.org/
IEEE Task Force on Cluster Computing
http://www.ieeetfcc.org/
iland Workforce Cloud
http://www.iland.com/solutions/workforce-cloud
Institute of Parallel and Distributed Systems (IPVS)
http://www.ipvs.uni-stuttgart.de/start/en
Internet-based Distributed Computing Projects
http://distributedcomputing.info
IRIS: Infrastructure for Resilient Internet Systems
http://iris.lcs.mit.edu/
JCGrid Web (Java Grid Computing)
http://jcgrid.sourceforge.net/
Journal of Grid Computing
http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=111140
JXTA Project
http://www.jxta.org/
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing
http://www.lbl.gov/CS/
LHC@home Distributed Computing Research Project
http://lhcathome.cern.ch/
Manchester HEP Grid Working Group
http://www.hep.grid.ac.uk/grid/
Manjrasoft - Innovative Cloud and Grid Computing Technologies
http://www.manjrasoft.com/
Mersenne Prime Search
http://www.mersenne.org/
Microsoft Cloud Computing Tools
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/vstudio/cc972640.aspx
Microsoft Live Mesh
https://www.mesh.com/Welcome/default.aspx
Milkyway@Home - Help Discover the Structures in the Milky Way Galaxy
http://milkyway.cs.rpi.edu/milkyway/
Mithral - Client-Server Software Development Kit (CSSDK)
http://www.mithral.com/products/cs-sdk/
MoneyBee
http://uk.moneybee.net/
MusicGrid - A Case Study in Broadband Video Collaboration by Hassan Masum, Martin Brooks, and John Spence
http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/issue/view/184
myGrid
http://www.mygrid.org.uk/
MyGrid - Open Source Grid and Grid Middleware
http://mygrid.sourceforge.net/
MysterNetworks - The Evolution of Peer-to-Peer
http://www.mysternetworks.com/
National Centre for eSocial Science (NCeSS)
http://www.ncess.ac.uk/
NetSolve GridSolve
http://icl.cs.utk.edu/netsolve/
Network World Fusion
http://www.nwfusion.com/
NeuroGrid - P2P Search
http://www.neurogrid.net/
NextGRID: Architecture for Next Generation Grids
http://www.nextgrid.org/
NIST Cloud Computing Definition
http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html
NMI-EDIT Consortium
http://www.nmi-edit.org/
NSF Middleware Initiative
http://www.nsf-middleware.org/
NVIDIA Tesla Personal Supercomputer
http://www.nvidia.com/object/personal_supercomputing.html
OGCE - Open Grid Computing Environments Collaboratory
http://www.ogce.org/
OneHub - Flexible Cloud to Share Files, Manage Projects and Online Collaboration
http://onehub.com/
Open Cluster Group
http://www.openclustergroup.org/
Open Data Grid
http://grid.okfn.org/
Open Grid Forum - Applied Distributed Computing
http://www.ggf.org/
OpenP2P.com
http://www.openp2p.com/
OpenSim - Open Grid Services
http://www.opensimulator.org/
Open Science Grid
http://www.opensciencegrid.org/
OSCAR : Open Source Cluster Application Ressources
http://www.csm.ornl.gov/oscar/
Parabon Computation - Internet Computing is Computing Outside the Box
http://www.parabon.com/
Parasitic Computing
http://www.nd.edu/~parasite/
Paremus - Redefining Enterprise Grid
http://www.paremus.com/
PCs Do Thousands of Years of Work By Jo Twist
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4270241.stm
Peer to Peer Working Group - P2P WG - Internet2
http://p2p.internet2.edu/
PlanetLab
http://www.planet-lab.org/
Platform GRID Computing
http://www.platform.com/
Proteins@home Distributed Computing Research Project
http://biology.polytechnique.fr/proteinsathome/
Public Data Sets on AWS
http://aws.amazon.com/publicdatasets/
PVM: Parallel Virtual Machine
http://www.csm.ornl.gov/pvm/
QADPZ - Quite Advanced Distributed Parallel Zystem
http://qadpz.sourceforge.net/
Quadrics
http://www.quadrics.com/
RackSpace Cloud - Cloud Computing, Cloud Hosting and Online Storage
http://www.rackspacecloud.com/
Reservoir - Infrastructure for Cloud Computing
http://www.reservoir-fp7.eu/
rPath - A Pragmatic, Incremental Approach to Cloud Computing
http://www.rpath.com/corp/cloud-adoption-model?pi_ad_id=2947665472&gclid=CLzfgpmhk5kCFQITswodsmUaZw
RSS Cloud
http://www.RSSCloud.org/
SETI@home: Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
http://setiathome.berkeley.edu/
SmartFrog - Smart Framework for Object Groups
http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/smartfrog/
Spinhenge@home Distributed Computing Research Project
http://spin.fh-bielefeld.de/
Stratos Learning - Cloud Computing Education
http://stratoslearning.com/
Sun Grid Engine -- Data Sheet
http://wwws.sun.com/software/gridware/datasheet.html
Swarm - A Transparently Scalable Distributed Programming Language
http://code.google.com/p/swarm-dpl/
SZTAKI Desktop Grid
http://desktopgrid.hu/
TeraGrid
http://www.teragrid.org/
Terremark Enterprise Cloud
http://www.theenterprisecloud.com/
The Beowulf Cluster Site
http://www.beowulf.org/
The ChessBrain Network
http://www.chessbrain.net/
The Cloud, Cloud Computing, Cloud Hosting, and Cloud Services
http://www.mosso.com/
The DataGrid Project
http://eu-datagrid.web.cern.ch/
The Globus Alliance
http://www.globus.org/
The GRIDS Lab and the Gridbus Project
http://www.gridbus.org/
The Open GRiD Project
http://www.ecsl.cs.sunysb.edu/~maxim/OpenGRiD/
The Semantic Grid
http://www.semanticgrid.org/
ThinkCycle - Open Distributed Collaborative Design
http://www.thinkcycle.org/
TOP500 Supercomputer Sites
http://www.top500.org/
UNICORE Distributed Computing and Data Resources
http://www.unicore.eu/
UPnP™ Forum
http://www.upnp.org/
University of Florida - OCEAN Project
http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/ocean/
VMLogix LabManager - Cloud Edition
http://www.vmlogix.com/VMLogix-LabManager-Cloud-Edition-Solution/
WaveMaker - Open Source Development Platform
http://www.WaveMaker.com/
Web Services Grid Application Framework (WS-GAF)
http://www.neresc.ac.uk/ws-gaf/
World Community Grid for Health Research
http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org
Worldwide Virtual Computer - Legion
http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~legion/
WS GRAM - Grid Resource Allocation and Management (GRAM)
http://www-unix.globus.org/toolkit/docs/3.2/gram/ws/
XtremWeb - Opensource Platform for Desktop Grids
http://www.XtremWeb.net
Yahoo! Directory Computer Science > Distributed Computing
http://dir.yahoo.com/Science/Computer_Science/Distributed_Computing/
ZDNet - Grid Resources
http://updates.zdnet.com/tags/grid.html
Current Subject Tracer™ Information Blogs:
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Agriculture Resources
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http://www.AIResources.info/
Astronomy Resources
http://www.AstronomyResources.info/
Auction Resources
http://www.AuctionResources.info/
Biological Informatics
http://www.biologicalinformatics.info/
Biotechnology Resources
http://www.BiotechnologyResources.info/
Bot Research
http://www.botresearch.info/
Business Intelligence Resources
http://www.biresources.info/
ChatterBots
http://www.ChatterBots.info/
Data Mining Resources
http://www.DataMiningResources.info/
Deep Web Research
http://www.deepwebresearch.info/
Directory Resources
http://www.DirectoryResources.info/
eCommerce Resources
http://www.eCommerceResources.info/
Elder Resources
http://www.ElderResources.info/
Employment Resources
http://www.EmploymentResources.info/
Entrepreneurial Resources
http://www.EntrepreneurialResources.info/
Financial Sources
http://www.FinancialSources.info/
Finding People
http://www.FindingPeople.info/
Games Resources
http://www.GamesResources.info/
Genealogy Resources
http://www.GenealogyResources.info/
Grant Resources
http://www.GrantResources.info/
Green Files
http://www.GreenFiles.info/
Grid, Distributed and Cloud Computing Resources
http:/www.GridResources.info/
Healthcare Resources
http://www.healthcareresources.info/
Information Futures Markets
http://www.InformationFuturesMarkets.com/
Information Quality Resources
http://www.InformationQualityResources.info/
International Trade Resources
http://www.InternationalTradeResources.info/
Internet Alerts
http://www.InternetAlerts.info/
Internet Demographics
http://www.internetdemographics.info/
Internet Experts
http://www.internetexperts.info/
Internet Hoaxes
http://www.internethoaxes.info/
Intrapreneurial Resources
http://www.IntrapreneurialResources.info/
Journalism Resources
http://www.JournalismResources.info/
Knowledge Discovery
http://www.knowledgediscovery.info/
Military Resources
http://www.MilitaryResources.info/
New Economy Analytics, Resources and Alerts
http://www.NewEconomyAnalytics.com/
Outsourcing/Offshoring Information and Resources
http://www.OutsourcingOffshore.us/
Privacy Resources
http://www.PrivacyResources.info/
Reference Resources
http://www.ReferenceResources.info/
Research Resources
http://www.researchresources.info/
RestStress™
http://www.RestStress.com/
Script Resources
http://www.ScriptResources.info/
ShoppingBots
http://www.ShoppingBots.info/
Social Informatics
http://www.SocialInformatics.net/
Statistics Resources
http://www.statisticsresources.info/
Student Research
http://www.studentresearch.info/
Theology Resources
http://www.TheologyResources.info/
Tutorial Resources
http://www.TutorialResources.info/
World Wide Web Reference
http://www.WWWReference.info/
© 2010 Marcus P. Zillman, M.S., A.M.H.A.
Great list of Grid computing projects and information sources.